Epidemiologia em saúde pública

Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.
2012

Fundamentos da Paleoparasitologia

Primeiro livro no mundo a compilar o conhecimento disponível sobre o assunto e apresentar o estado da arte em Paleoparasitologia - termo cunhado há cerca de 30 anos por um brasileiro, o pesquisador da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Luiz Fernando Ferreira, pioneiro da disciplina. O texto é uma síntese do que os pesquisadores fizeram na área de Paleoparasitologia nesses 30 anos.
2011

Hepatitis B epidemiology and cultural practices in Amerindian populations of Amazonia the Tupi-Mondé and the Xavante from Brazil

Hepatitis B infection and disease are highly endemic in South America. Prevalences of positivity are particularly high in Amazonia, and among Amerindian peoples in particular. This paper reports the results of a seroepidemiological survey for hepatitis B virus (HBV) carried out among four Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon region: Gavião, Suruí, Zoró and Xavánte. Rates of positivity to HBV serological markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs and/or anti-HBc) are very high for the four groups, ranging from 62.8 to 95.7%. It is argued that the high rates of positivity in the Amerindian groups dealt with in this study, as well as for other Amazonian populations, are related to a complex of cultural practices which enhance the likelihood of HBV transmission (bloodletting, scarification, tattooing and orally processed food, among others). The authors suggest that, due to unique patterns of interaction between sociocultural and environmental factors, HBV infection assumes a specific profile in native Amazonian societies.
1996

Uma conversa com Frederico Simões Barbosa [Entrevista]

Entrevista com o doutor Frederico Simões Barbosa, importante personagem na construção do campo da Saúde Pública e da Epidemiologia no Brasil. Tendo iniciado suas atividades de pesquisa na década de 40, foi um dos primeiros a conduzir estudos epidemiológicos de longa duração no Brasil. Seu nome está estreitamente associado à consolidação da epidemiologia como campo de investigação, tanto na academia como nos serviços de saúde pública.
1997

Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil

Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.
2011

Padrões radiológicos da tuberculose pulmonar em indígenas Suruí de Rondônia, Amazônia

Foram analisados padrões radiológicos de 23/33 (69,7%) dos indígenas Suruí tratados em 2003-2004. Observou-se 44,8% de consolidações não homogêneas, 10,3% de cavitações e 39,1% de acometimentos múltiplos do parênquima. Apesar de 36% dos doentes avaliados terem apresentado radiografias normais, o tratamento específico foi iniciado sem que tivessem sido esgotadas as possibilidades de investigação diagnóstica.
2006

Management and Control of Head Lice Infestations - Edited by J. Heukelbach: Uni-Med Science Verlag, 2010: 143 pp.

Resenha do livro Management and Control of Head Lice Infestations, produzido por J. Heukelbach e publicado em 2010. Dr. Heukelbach é um conhecido especialista em ectoparasitas. O livro é extremamente útil para os especialistas interessados no controle e gestão de piolhos humanos. Aspectos relevantes são discutidos, e as tabelas e outras figuras estão bem posicionados, ajudando a compreender o texto. O texto é conciso e abrange todos principais pontos sobre a infestação de piolhos.
2011

Chagas disease in prehistory

The classical hypothesis proposes that Chagas disease has been originated in the Andean region among prehistoric people when they started domesticating animals, changing to sedentary habits, and adopting agriculture. These changes in their way of life happened nearly 6,000 years ago. However, paleoparasitological data based on molecular tools showed that Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease were commonly found both in South and North American prehistoric populations long before that time, suggesting that Chagas disease may be as old as the human presence in the American continent. The study of the origin and dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among prehistoric human populations may help in the comprehension of the clinical and epidemiological questions on Chagas disease that still remain unanswered.
2011

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